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By Kristi Lew

Acids and bases are crucial parts of the wildlife that play key roles in medication and undefined. This e-book takes an in depth examine those interesting, but contrasting, components, giving concrete, actual global examples with a number of vibrant illustrations.

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Example text

The elements on the ­left-­hand side of the periodic table are metals. Metals form positive ions. Therefore, hydrogen ions have a charge of +1, and so do sodium ­ions. Nonmetals are on the ­right-­hand side of the periodic table. The number of the group that the nonmetal is in still represents the number of valence electrons (at least on periodic tables that retain the older group numbering system of Roman numerals). Chlorine, for example, is in Group VIIA of the periodic table, so it has seven valence electrons.

The products (the substances made when the reac-­ tants react with each other) are placed on the ­right-­hand side of the equation. Atoms cannot be made or destroyed in a chemical reaction, only rearranged. This is called the law of conservation of matter. Therefore, there must always be the same number of atoms of each element on the reactant side of the equation as there are on the product ­side. 48 acids and bases To balance a chemical equation, the chemical formulas for the reactants are first written on the ­left-­hand side of the equation.

Elements in Group 2A have two valence elec-­ trons, and so on. The elements on the ­left-­hand side of the periodic table are metals. Metals form positive ions. Therefore, hydrogen ions have a charge of +1, and so do sodium ­ions. Nonmetals are on the ­right-­hand side of the periodic table. The number of the group that the nonmetal is in still represents the number of valence electrons (at least on periodic tables that retain the older group numbering system of Roman numerals). Chlorine, for example, is in Group VIIA of the periodic table, so it has seven valence electrons.

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