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By Peter Kosso

A precis of clinical strategy is a quick description of what makes technological know-how clinical. it truly is written in an immediate, transparent kind that's available and informative for scientists and technological know-how scholars. it's meant to assist technological know-how lecturers clarify how technology works, highlighting strengths with out ignoring boundaries, and to assist scientists articulate the method and criteria in their paintings. The ebook demonstrates that there are a number of very important necessities for being clinical, and the main primary of those is protecting an in depth, interconnected, coherent community of principles. a few elements within the community are empirical, others are theoretical, and so they aid one another. Clarifying the constitution of this net of data explains the position of the generally pointed out elements of medical strategy, such things as hypotheses, theories, checking out, proof, and so forth. A precis of clinical strategy offers a transparent, intuitive, and actual version of medical strategy.

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A Summary of Scientific Method

A precis of medical approach is a short description of what makes technology clinical. it truly is written in an immediate, transparent type that's obtainable and informative for scientists and technology scholars. it's meant to aid technology lecturers clarify how technology works, highlighting strengths with out ignoring barriers, and to assist scientists articulate the method and criteria in their paintings.

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Testing for understanding requires longer answers in which ideas must cooperate. Deriving one result from another, or applying ideas to novel situations demonstrates understanding. This is why most teachers value discursive, problem-solving exams over the true/false format. It is also why a lonely result with no derivation, even a correct result, is not a satisfactory answer when asked to solve a problem. ‘‘Show your work,’’ means show that you not only know the right answer, but that you genuinely understand what is going on.

Kuhn’s motivation for saying this is based on his survey of historical cases, but it could just as well be argued in principle, based on the essentially holistic nature of paradigms. The influence of a paradigm is pervasive in that it establishes the appropriate language of the science, the background knowledge against which new ideas are compared, and even the standards by 28 5 Scientific Change which new experimental results are judged. All aspects of a science are thus paradigm-dependent, including any guidelines for judging the acceptability of a paradigm.

But he did this before the use of astronomical telescopes. Subsequent measurements, made more precise with the use of telescopes, showed that the parallax motion did happen, as predicted by the new world system. The refined ability to observe nature allowed for this new, pivotal information. The case of stellar parallax as evidence against, or for, the hypothesis that the earth orbits the sun is a good place to demonstrate the important aspects of empirical testing developed in Chap. 3. The hypothesis that the earth moves is indeed about a phenomenon that could not be directly observed, at least not at the time of the Copernican Revolution.

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