Download A History of Capitalism, 1500-2000 by Michel Beaud PDF

By Michel Beaud

The conquest of the Americas inaugurated the sluggish accumulation of assets and the imperceptible structural variations that culminated within the business Revolution. From that second on, capitalism grew and accelerated with a dynamism and suppleness which are now all too established, taking advantage of wars or even coping with to rebound after a chain of devastating financial crises.

In this highly-anticipated revised version of the 1981 vintage, Beaud extends one of many significant strengths of the unique: the interweaving of social, political, and financial elements within the context of background. even as, Beaud's research offers a pragmatic and thorough exam of the advancements of capitalism within the final two decades, together with globalization, the accelerating pace of capital move, and the cave in of the Soviet empire and the following absorption of its inhabitants into the area marketplace. This new version additionally deals a very revised layout that integrates diagrams and flow-charts no longer formerly to be had within the English-language version.

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The extent of the contribution, however, is often related to how well a researcher controls confounding influences. In reading reports of quantitative studies, you will need to consider whether the researcher has, in fact, appropriately controlled extraneous variables. Although research control in quantitative studies is viewed as a critical tool for managing bias and enhancing validity, there are situations in which too much control can introduce bias. For example, if researchers tightly control the ways in which key study variables can manifest themselves, it is possible that the true nature of those variables will be obscured.

Almost all studies have some descriptive intent. Some exploratory studies are undertaken with the expectation that the results will serve a predictive or control function. Pure explanatory studies are the least common in the nursing literature. , 1998, 2005; Estabrooks, 1998; Guyatt & Rennie, 2002; Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2005). The types of studies providing evidence to guide practice have focused on etiology, screening, and detection; diagnosis and assessment; prognosis; treatment, therapy, and interventions; and meaning.

Height or weight). , male, female). Dependent Variables and Independent Variables Many quantitative studies seek to determine the causes of a particular phenomenon. Does a nursing intervention cause improved patient outcomes? Does a certain procedure cause stress? The presumed cause is called the independent variable, and the presumed effect is called the dependent variable. Variation in the dependent variable is presumed to depend on variation in the independent variable. For example, researchers investigate the extent to which lung cancer (the dependent variable) depends on or is caused by smoking (the independent variable).

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